A list of frequently used real estate terminology/glossary and their meaning, arranged in alphabetical order.
Abatement notice A notice served on the owner(s) or occupier(s) of a property from which a private nuisance arises, warning them of the intention to enter on the land in order to abate the nuisance.
Absolute title 1. The right of ownership of a mortgage deed, which gives the right, in certain specified circumstances, to demand repayment in full, of the outstanding debt than the due date. 2. A clause in a deed or contract, which provides for the early termination of an exciting interest in land, in certain specified circumstances, thereby advancing the future interest.
Agreement for lease/sale A contract to enter into a lease (or sale), which in order to be enforceable either must be evidenced in writing and signed by the person against whom action is taken for the breach of the alleged contract and there must be a sufficient act of part performance.
Alternative user value The value of land and buildings which reflects a prospective use which is different from that of the current use.
Amortisation 1.(UK) The concept of writing off the capital cost of a wasting physical asset by means of a sinking fund. 2. (USA) Payment of a debt in equal installments of principal interest, as opposed to interest-only payments.
Anchor tenant One or more department or variety chainstores, or supermarkets, introduced into a shopping centre in key positions to attract the shopping public into the centre for the purpose of encouraging other retailers to lease shops en route. The larger the developments the more anchors required.
Annuity A sum of money paid each year during the life of the recipient. An annuity is usually paid as a legal obligation under a contract or undertaking, as through a pension scheme, and may be paid in installments more frequently than once every twelve months.
Asset valuation In the property market this expression is applied to the valuation of land and buildings or plant and machinery. The term is often used to describe an expert opinion of the worth of a property which may be incorporated into company accounts, where the ownership of the asset is not necessarily to be transferred but the valuation is required for the company takeovers, share flotation or mortgages.
Assignment The transfer of a property interest, especially a lease, from one party to another.
Atrium An entrance hall of a building, often rising through a number of storeys and containing lifts, reception areas and plants. Originally the hall or chief apartment of a Roman house.
Balloon payment A repayment of a loan bond, usually but not necessarily the final repayment, which is larger in amount than other installments.
Bare shell Depicts the condition of any property after completion of construction activity and installations of basic building services. A bare shell includes basic flooring - tiled, mosaic, cement or granite and plastered walls. Apart from this, pantry and toilet facilities may also be operational in such condition.
Basic rent A monthly rental net of maintenance and interest costs charged or quoted by landlords for any property. The base rent comprises of only the payment made for usage of the subject property under a lease agreement. Imputed costs such as holding costs, fit out costs and building service charges are not usually included in the base rent.
Bayana An Indian term used to denote the token money given to the landlord to informally freeze negotiations on a particular property, after the initial terms and conditions have been formalised.
Breach of contract An act, or omission, contrary to enforce specific performance to rescind the contract and / or to claim damages, the remedy available depending upon the nature of the breach.
Broker/dealer A person or company who acts as a medium of bringing owners and proposed buyers together with a view to complete a real estate transaction.
Brokerage 1. Commission paid to a broker. 2. The activity of a broker in bringing together two parties in a transaction.
Building bye laws Local authority control of building standards promulgated to regulate and control the usage of land, property and areas in cities and towns.
Building contract A contract between an owner or occupier of land and a building contractor, setting forth the terms under which construction is to be carried out, basis of remuneration, time scale, and penalties, if any, for failure to comply with terms of the contract.
Business centre Commercial premises usable by the occupiers for a short period on a membership basis of the centre. Usually, a business centre charges for the full service accommodation, which is generally substantially higher than the rental of a standard office space and usually includes cost of HVAC, housekeeping, electricity, and security systems.
Business park A landscaped area containing high tech, other amenities for business purposes, as distinct from high-tech park or a science park. Building density is lower than would be usual in a traditional industrial estate. Business parks are preferentially located where motorway, rail and airport communications are within a short distance.
Buy-out rate In a funding agreement between a developer and a prospective purchaser, the pre-determined investment yield which will be used to capitalize the annual income receivable at the time of sale to determine the buy out price.
Capitalisation 1. At a given date the conversion into the equivalent capital worth of a series of net receipts, actual or estimated, over a period.
2. A method of calculating a final purchase price for a development using an agreed formula to convert actual, or assumed, income from initial lettings into a capitalism. Such capitalised sums may be offset against a purchasing fund's interim finance payments, any excess being paid to the developer.
3. In relation to a company's reserves, the conversion into capital of money, which is then distributed as a capitalisation issue.
Catchment area 1. The area of land from which finds its way into a particular watercourse, lake or reservoir.
2. By analogy, the area which contains those people who can be expected to obtain goods, services, employment or other benefits from a particularly property. More especially related to retail premises, where the success of forecasting depends on the accuracy of estimating the number of purchasers (catchment population) likely to be attracted from the different parts of the area and the average expenditure which might be expected from them.
Central business district The functional centre around which the rest of a city is comparison shopping, office accommodation, leisure facilities, buildings for recreational use, public museums, art galleries and governmental functions. Generally the area of highest land values within a city.
Clearance area An area which is to be cleared of all buildings. Generally promulgated by way of a government declaration, which is normally followed by the acquisition of the land and the clearance of the area.
Completion certificate/statement 1. (UK) statement prepared by solicitors, usually those acting for a purchaser and a vendor respectively, following the conveyance of an interest in property, giving a schedule of sums received leading to a balance being the final amount due to the vendor. In some case the statement is prepared at a later date and may show a figure recoverable by the purchaser from the vendor.
2. A certificate issued by the local development authority certifying that all necessary works have been completed and that the property is fit for occupation.
Condominium (USA) A building or a structure of two or more units, the interior space of the individually owned and the balance of the property (both land and building) being owned in common by the owners of the individual units.
Conveyance A document transferring title to land from one person to another.
Current yield The remunerative rate of interest which is, or would be, a appropriate at the date of valuation, assuming the property to be let at its full rental value. It will be the same as the reversion yield where the reversion is to full rental value, and the same as the term yield where the rent receivable under the lease is full rental value.
Developer An entrepreneur who has an interest in a property, initiates its development and ensures, that this is carried out ( for occupation, investment or dealing) and from the outset accepts the responsibility for providing or procures the requisite funds needed to finance the whole project.
Development control The powers of a local planning authority to control the development and use of land, which includes inter alia:-
a) the refusal or grant (with or without conditions)of planning permission.
b) the issue of enforcement notices.
c) the making of revocation, modification or discontinuance orders.
d) the grant or refusal of listed building consents.
e) the designations of conversion areas.
Development yield In a valuation to ascertain a ground rent, the rate at which costs are decapitalised to find the annual deduction from the occupation rents. It comprises:
a) an investment yield
b) an annual allowance for developers risk and profit and, in some instances
c) an annual sinking fund element
Discounted cash flow analysis Techniques used in investment and development appraisal whereby future inflows and outflows of cash associated with a particular project are expressed in present-day terms by discounting. The most widely used forms of DCF are the internal rates of return (IRR) and net present value (NPV). The techniques may be used for such purposes as the valuation of land and investment, the ranking of projects or their components.
Easement (UK) A right appurtenant to a parcel of land entitling a dominant owner to use the land of the servient owner in a particular manner, or constraining the legal rights otherwise enjoyed by the servient owner, eg. A right of way, right to light, right to support. Strictly speaking, easements cannot exist "in gross", ie personal and unattached to the ownership of land, but rights similar to easements can be created by statute, usually for the benefit of public utility undertakings, and these are commonly referred to as "statutory easements".
Effective rent The gross rent payable per month by the occupiers which includes the base rent, maintenance charges, imputed costs of loss of interest on security deposit and rental advance. The effective rent indicates the total cash outflow of an occupier every month on account of leasing any property.
Equity linked mortgage A mortgage whereby the interest on the principal in part or in whole is calculated, usually yearly, by reference on the security, eg. It may reflect annual increase or possible decreases, in the annual return on, or the value of, the property in which the mortgage is secured.
Escalation clause Specified in lease agreements wherein renewals of lease period are built in. It involves an increment in the base rent at every renewal of a lease agreement and is generally a percentage rate that is either pre agreed or negotiated before the renewal of the lease agreement.
Facilities management The co-ordination of many specialist disciplines to create the optimum working environment for staff.
Fail rent The rent determined by a rent officer (or, on appeal, by a rent assessment committee) under a regulated tenancy and registered.
FERA An act to regulate certain payments dealing in foreign exchange, securities, the import & export of currency and acquisition of immovable property by foreigners. Under Section 31 (1) of the Foreign Exchange Regulation Act ( FERA) of 1973, it is mandatory for foreign corporations, which are not incorporated in India to obtain permission from the Reserve Bank Of India (RBI) to acquire, hold, transfer or dispose off in any manner (expect by way of lease for a period not exceeding five years) any immovable property in India.
Fire certificate >A certificate covering matters of safety required under the legislation for hotels, boarding houses, factories, offices shops and railway premises, excluding those buildings containing less than a minimum number of employees. In order to obtain a fire certificate,one must apply to a fire officer, who then inspects the building and issues a list of requirements (eg. Fire escape doors/stairways). Once the fire officer is satisfied that those requirements have been met he will issue the fire certificate. It enables fire officers, in the event of an emergency, to have prior knowledge inter alia of the permitted number of people on each floor; it also informs officials if any authorised inflammables /explosives materials are found on the premises.
Fitouts Relate to the interior permanent furnishings required in a property including HVAC ducting, fire protection system implementation, establishment of workstations and telephone/computer cabling among others, in order to make the property fit for usage.
Flatted factory An industrial building of more than one storey, usually with two or more goods lifts, and constructed or converted for multiple occupation. The building is subdivided into small, separately occupied units which are used for manufacturing, assembly and associated storage.
Force majeure A force, which cannot be resisted, in other words, something beyond the control of the parties involved . It includes acts of God and acts of man, eg. Riots, strikes, arson. In many contracts and insurance policies, specific provision is made for damage or injury arising from force majeure. For example, the financial liability of a building contractor for failure to complete by a specific date may be relieved to the extent it was caused by force majeure. This is a common clause in most property contracts.
Foreclosure 1. (UK) The mortgagees restricted power to extinguish the mortgagor's right of redemption by transferring the mortgagor's interest in the property to himself, if the mortgagors default in paying his dues or in complying with any other terms of the mortgage deeds. 2. (USA) The legal process by which a mortgagee can sell the mortgagors interest in the property to satisfy debt: also called "foreclosure sale". Also applied to the extinguishment of a mortgagors right of redemption.
Freehold In general parlance this is used as shorthand for the tenure of an estate in fee simple absolute in possession. Strictly speaking, however, freehold includes fee simple, entailed interests and tenancies for life.
Frontage(line) The full length of a plot of land or a building measured alongside the road on to which the plot or building fronts. In the case of contiguous buildings individual frontages are usually measured to the middle of any party wall.
Greased lease back The disposal by a freehold or leasehold owner of his interest on a property or leasehold interest where the rent payable is geared to a fixed percentage of some variables, often rack-rental value.
Gold cause (UK) A clause in a lease which provides for the rent to be reviewed with reference to the price of gold.
Green field site An area of land, usually in the edge of a town or city or away from substantial urban areas, hitherto undeveloped but for which development is now proposed.
Gross External Area (GEA) The aggregate superficial area of a building taking each floor into account. As described in the RICS/ISVA Code of Measuring Practice (UK), this includes: external walls and projections, internal walls and partitions, columns, piers, chimney-breasts, stairwells, lift wells, tank and plant rooms, fuel stores; whether or not above main roof level and open-sided covered areas and enclosed car-parking areas, terraces etc.
Hi-tech building (high technology building) Primarily a modern industrial building which is particularly suited to the flexible uses and space needs of business organisations engaged in modern technologies. Such activities usually require more office or laboratory space than a traditional factory and also more sophisticated and adaptable installations for services and communications.
High point loading A concentration of abnormally heavy floor-loading at one point or more. Particular places in a building or other structure where extra support may be required.
HVAC Refers to the heating, ventilation, air conditioning system installed in a building to regulate temperature. This includes air conditioning plants, chillers and ducting systems, which ensure the uniform transfer of the cold or hot air, as the case may be throughout the building.
Indian Stamp Act, 1899 A legal statute, which provides for the payment of stamp duty in case of all real estate transactions to duty to the local government. The value of the stamp duty depends on the rental payable and the lease term or the sale value as the case may be. This duty is paid by purchasing non judicial Indian Stamp Paper, on which the lease/sale agreements are documented.
Improvements Generally, physical changes which enhance the capital value of land or buildings. These may include additional buildings, extensions to existing buildings, installation of new services, eg. central heating and air conditioning and infrastructure works. On the other hand, mere replacement by a modern equivalent if something worn out would normally be regarded as a repair rather than an improvement. The distinction has legal and taxation consequences.
Indenture a deed between two or more parties, each party having his own copy. Originally copies were all included in a single document from which each part was torn or cut along a wavy (intended) line.
Institutional investors These are generally taken to include banks, pension funds, insurance companies, unit trusts and investment trusts, which are together commonly referred to in the investment field as the "institutions".
Investment yield The annual percentage return which is considered to be for a specific valuation in an investment being expressed as the ratio of annual net income (actual or estimated) to the capital value. It is therefore a measure of an investor's opinion about the prospects and risks attached to that investment. The better the prospects and lower the risks, the lower the expected yield and thus the greater the capital value. The required yield from an investment is estimated in the light of such factors as:
a) the security in real terms of the capital invested.
b) the security in real terms and regularity of income.
c) the ability to adjust the income to reflect market conditions.
d) the complexity and cost of management.
e) the ease and likely cost of realizing the capital.
f) the tax position.
Internal rate of return (IRR) 1. The rate of interest (expressed as a percentage) at which all-future cash flows (positive and negative) must be discounted in order that the net present value of those cash flows should be equal to zero. It is found by trial and error by applying present values at different rates of interest in turn to the net cash flow. It is something called the discounted cash flow rate of return.2. An alternative explanation might be: the highest rate of interest (expressed as a percentage) at which funded cash flow generated is to be sufficient to repay the original outlay at the end of the project life.
Joint agent One or two or more agents jointly instructed by a principal to act on his behalf. In the case of estate agents this is normally on the basis that if any one of the agents effect the sale, letting or other joint agent(s) will share the remuneration in agreed proportions. None of these agents would be entitled to a commission if the transaction is concluded as a result of someone else's introduction. Joint sole agent One of two or more agents jointly instructed as the only agent entitled to represent the principal. It is customary for the joint agents to share any commission earned on an agreed basis, irrespective of which agent effects the sale or letting.
Kiosk A small enclosed retailed outlet, normally without toilet facilities and in the retail area, frequently located in a public concourse or other place where it may remain open only during peak times and be closed securely when there are no customers. Kiosks are now sometimes included in managed shopping schemes.
Land assembly The process of forming a single site from a number of lands, usually for eventual development or redevelopment. This will include acquisition of individual interest and the eventual development or redevelopment, removal or discharge of any restrictive covenants or other encumbrances and obtaining physical possession, when required, from occupiers.
Landlord The owner of an interest in land who, in consideration of a rent or other payment (eg. a premium), grants the right to exclusive possession of the whole or part of their land to another person for a specific or determinable period by way of a lease or tenancy.
Lease agreement An agreement, usually written, between the lessor and the lessee, which allows for the conveyance of property to the tenant under a contract, and confers usage and control rights to the tenant for the duration of lease. Apart from financial terms and conditions, several clauses describing the other binding terms and conditions of the agreement are also documented.
LicenseThe lawful grant of a right to do something which would otherwise be illegal or wrongful. It may be gratuitous, contractual or coupled with an interest in land. The grantor of license is the licensor and the grantee is the licensee. A gratuitous ("mere" or "bare") license can always be revoked (ie. cancelled), but revocability of a contractual license depends on the terms of the contract. A license coupled with an interest in land may be irrevocable and unlike the other two categories, may be binding on successors in title of the licensor. One example of license is permission, usually required in writing, given specifically by an owner to a tenant, enabling something to be done which otherwise would be in breach of a term of the lease. A license does not itself transfer any interest in the land but may authorise the licensee to enter the licensor's land for some specific purposes of the license; the licensor may enter the land and use it in any way not inconsistent with the rights of the licensee. However, a landlord may authorise by license some act or omission by a tenant, which would otherwise be a breach of the terms of the lease.
Load bearing The capacity of an element in a building structure to support a weight in addition to its own, whether vertically or laterally. Thus a load bearing wall is one which supports part of the structure in addition to its own weight.
Maintenance In property parlance, the keeping of a building, structure or other physical feature in a specified condition eg. wind and weather tight conditions. The approved cost of maintenance may be deductible for income taxation.
Mattha Frontage of a building with the main road.
Mortgage The conveyance of a legal or equitable interest in freehold or leasehold property as security for a loan and with provision for redemption on repayment of the loan. The lender (mortgagee) has powers of recovery in the event of default by the borrower (mortgagor). A mortgage is a form of land charge and can be either legal or equitable.
Negotiation Discussion, written or otherwise, between two or more parties of different sides, the aim being to reach a common agreement.
Non conforming use The use of a property which does not conform to the allocation of the area for planning purposes. Such a property may have been built in conformity with the planning requirement at the time and a policy change ensued; more usually, the property was constructed before planning control was introduced.
Net present value method (NPV) A method used in discounted cash flow analysis to find the sum of money representing the difference between the present value of all inflows and outflows of cash associated with the project by discounting each at a target yield.
Open market value 1. The best price which might reasonably be expected to be obtained at arms' length for an interest in a property at the date of valuation, subject to any statutory assumptions which may be required.
2. For the purpose of asset valuations this is defined by the Royal Institute of Chartered Surveyors (UK) as the best price which might reasonably be expected to be obtained for an interest in a property at the date of valuation assuming:
1. there is a willing seller
2. there is a reasonable period in which to negotiate the sale
3. that values will remain static during that period
4. that the property will be freely exposed to the market; and
5. that no account will be taken of any higher price that might be paid by a person with a special interest.
Outgoings Costs incurred by the owner of an interest in property, usually calculated on a yearly basis. Eg. management, repairs, rates, insurance and rent payable to the holder of a superior interest, as appropriate to his contractual or other liabilities. It is prudent to make annual provision for future items involving expenditure at intervals of more than one year
Patwari Usually denotes the person appointed by a local government or land authority to maintain and update land ownership records for a specific area as well as to undertake the collection of land taxes.
Penal rent A financial punishment of a tenant for failing to honour his obligation to pay rent at the proper time, taking the form of a vastly higher figure being payable during the period of default.
Permitted one Colloquially, either 1. A use authorised by a grant of planning permission or ,
2. A use allowed by the deemed grant of planning permission under the local development control norms.
Pre-stressed concrete A type of reinforced concrete in which all or some of the ordinary steel reinforcement is replaced by high-tensile steel bars or wires which are tensioned by 'pre-tensioning' or 'post-tensioning'. The number and positioning of wires or tendons can be arranged to eliminate all tension in the concrete, thereby preventing cracking and so rendering the concrete water-tight and gas-tight as well as increasing in durability. Pre-stressed concrete structures can achieve greater spans and carry higher loading.
Premium rent 1. A rent above the level which a property could reasonably be expected to command in the open market on normal terms. Such rents may be justified in instances where the tenant receives a present or future benefit against the market. Eg. in inflationary conditions where upward-only rent reviews are normally required at three-yearly intervals, the tenant may be prepared to pay a higher rent if fixed for a longer period of say, 5 years.
2. A rent which is higher than would reasonably be expected because the tenant is particularly anxious to secure the property.
Private treaty The most common method of disposal of real property, in which negotiations are carried out between the vendor and prospective purchasers (or their respective agents) privately and in comparative secrecy, normally without any limit on the time within which they must be completed, before contracts are exchanged.
Project management (development management) The leadership role which plans, budgets, co-ordinates, monitors and controls the operational contributions of property professionals, and others, in a project involving the development of land in accordance with a client's objectives in terms of quality, cost and time.
Property investment trust A public company, having certain tax advantages and complying with rules applicable to its operation and investment activities, managed by a professional specialist team and established for the purpose of acquiring mainly shares in property companies-public or private. To such an extent, as is permitted legally, without prejudicing its beneficial tax treatment, it may invest in other securities, own property directly or undertake development. It provides shareholders with an interest in a wide ranging portfolio and the reassuring knowledge that investment policy is in the hands of experts.
Property management The range of functions concerned with looking after buildings, including collection of rents, payment of outgoings, maintenance including repair, provision of services, insurance and supervision of staff employed for services, together with negotiations with tenants or prospective tenants. The extent of and responsibility for management between landlord and tenant depend on terms of the lease(s). The landlord may delegate some or all of these functions to managing agents.
Property portfolio management The unified management of a group of properties which are held in one ownership. Decisions taken in respect of any issue are reached on the basis of achieving the maximum benefit for the owners, having regard to the effect on the portfolio as a whole rather than on an individual property.
Pugree An Indian term used to describe an interest free security deposit given to landlords which is refundable at the expiry of the lease term to the outgoing tenant by the successive tenant.
Qualified Covenant A restriction contained in a legal document which limits the rights of a person having an interest in the land but, by its wording envisages the possibility of removing the limitation on terms agreed between the parties eg. a covenant by a lessee not to assign or sublet without the landlord's written consent. In certain cases, such as the one quoted, statute law strengthens the applicant's position by importing such words as "such consent not to be unreasonably with-held".
Rack-rent A rent representing the full, or nearly the full, letting value of a property on a given set of terms and conditions
Rateable value The figure upon which property tax is charged in India. This value is determined by the tax authorities and thereafter the tax liability is charged to the owner(s) of the property on the basis of certain pre-determined tax slab rates.
In order to qualify, a trust must, among other requirements, be owned by at least 100 shareholders and invest most of its capital in real estate loans or properties and receive income in the hands of shareholders
Real Estate Investment Trust (USA/UK) A legally constituted organisation (entitled to preferential tax treatment) which enables investors to own and transfer shares of an interest in a property or properties; the shares can be dealt with in a manner similar to corporate stock. In order to qualify, a trust must be formed by at least 100 shareholders and invest most of its capital in real estate loans or properties and receive income from them. The special feature is that such a trust reduces its own taxable income by a distribution to shareholders with no tax deducted, but this is taxable income in the hands of shareholders according to their own tax status. To maintain the trust's right to gross distributions these must, in aggregate, be equal to minimum of 710 of the total trust income.
Refurbishment Improvement and modernisation of a building falling short of rebuilding or redevelopment and thus not normally requiring planning permission (other than for alterations to the external appearance), except in the case of listed buildings.
Registration and mutation: It is mandatory for the sale deed of all high value property transactions to be registered at the regional sub registrar's office of the local municipal authority. Thereafter, the buyer has to apply for mutation, which involves a change in the title records to incorporate the name of the buyer of the property. In order to complete the transfer of property, it is mandatory for the seller to furnish or arrange a valid "certificate of completion" issued from the local municipal authority to the buyer.
Renewal As distinct from repair, this is "reconstruction of the entirely meaning not necessarily the whole subject matter".0
Rent Act (s) Legislation promulgated by various states in India, which regulates the terms and conditions of the rental market with a view to curb profiteering and hoarding. Though its restrictive nature has not allowed owners to enjoy economic returns from same categories of property, thereby allowing market inefficiencies.
Rent free period An agreed period, usually for several weeks or months, during which a lessee is allowed to occupy the subject premises without payment of rent:
1. in consideration for the tenant incurring expenditure on such matters as fitting out premises or carrying out repairs or improvements.
2. to reflect market conditions which favour tenant eg. where the space available for letting exceeds the total tenant demand in that area or
3. by virtue of both a and b
Rentable area The area of floor space for which rent is calculated even though other areas, within or outside the premise, are lawfully used by the tenant. For example, in an office building it is customary to exclude from the direct calculation of rent the space used for corridors, atrium and stairways.
Rental advance Comprises a lump sum payment to the landlord at the beginning of the lease term, which is thereafter adjusted in equal installments over the lease term against the monthly base rental payable by the tenant. The advance amount generally ranges between 3 to 18 months depending on the city, type, location of property and the period of the lease.Root of title (UK) In conveyancing of unregistered land, a document which forms a solid basis to establish the title to the land. It must go back, sufficiently for identification, showing a disposition of the whole interest contracted to be sold and containing nothing throwing any doubt on the title.
Sale and leaseback An arrangement whereby a freeholder or lessee sells his interest in a property for an agreed sum and takes back a lease on the whole or part of the property from the purchaser, generally either at a rack rent or at some lesser rent related to the price paid.
Science park A development of an industrial nature suited to accommodate high technology, with supporting amenities, which is associated on site with or is close to a higher educational research establishment to provide cross-fertilisation of ideas between entrepreneurs and researchers for the purpose of enabling academic knowledge to be applied to effective commercial use.
Security deposit Comprises of an interest free lump sum payment to the landlord at the commencement of the lease, which is refundable at the end of the lease term. Though the deposit amount varies depending on city, property type, location and the period of the lease, it may range anywhere between 6 to 18 months of monthly rental. It is not uncommon for some landlords to provide a bank guarantee to the tenant as security for the repayment of the initial deposit amount.
Serviced accommodation Suites of offices or rooms where the landlord provides a range of services within the individual premises extending beyond the traditional ones associated with the maintenance and management of the building itself or the operation and maintenance of the installation or plant therein eg. furniture, telephone, fax machine, room cleaning, and/or provides centralised specialised services, such as a receptionist and secretarial and communication facilities.
Shopping Mall A group of retail outlets designed and built with ways for pedestrians on one or more levels to form a unified whole under one roof.
Site Plans A drawing of an area of land, on a horizontal plane, showing the boundaries and physical extent of the land included in a particular parcel. It may also show any existing buildings or the proposed layout of a development.
Speculator A person (usually a dealer) who undertakes a transaction in property, in expectation of asking for a profit but with the risk of not doing so.
Strata Title Freehold title to a horizontal title above and/or below. Satisfactory arrangements for management usually involve a statutory obligation for the setting up of a management corporation with responsibility for the maintenance of common facilities and areas.
Sub Leasing A method wherein, the primary lessee of a property has the right to further lease out a part or whole of the property to another occupier or lessee. Essentially, the right to sub lease is decided beforehand at the time of signing the main lease agreement and is with the consent of both the lessor and the lessee.
Suspended ceiling A ceiling, not being part of the structural framework of a building, installed below the level of the underside of the floor above or of the roof. Commonly used to provide space for services eg. cables, recessed lighting and piping; to reduce the cost of heating in a room; to improve the acoustics; or to produce more aesthetically pleasing proportions.
Tax clearance (37-1) The Income Tax Act, 1961 specifies that any lease transaction for not less than 12 years or any sale transaction, above a prescribed transaction value limit tax, has to undergo a clearance process from the appellate body known as the Income Tax Appropriate Authority, constituted under the Income Tax Act. A joint application by the parties involved in the transaction is submitted along with processing fees to the Income Tax Authority, which takes upto a maximum of three months to grant the clearance, without which the sale transaction is not complete. This procedure is popularly known as the 37-(I) clearance, which is the application form number used for this purpose.
Technology Park A landscaped development usually comprising of high specification office space as well as residential and retail developments, designed to encourage localisation of high technology companies such as information technology, software development etc., thereby giving each the benefit of economies of scale. Usually, technology parks are located outside the inner city areas as these are quite land intensive in nature.
Tenancy 1. Strictly speaking, the interest of a person holding property by any right or title.
2. More usually, an arrangement, whether by formal lease or informal agreement, whereby formal lease or informal agreement, whereby the owner (the landlord) allows another (the tenant) to take exclusive possession of land in consideration for rent, with or without a premium, either:
1. for an agreed period of
2. on a periodic basis until formally terminated
Tenant's improvements Improvements to land or buildings to meet the needs of and carried out wholly or partly at the expense of the tenant.
Town and country planning The determination of policy for the development and use of land and the control of its implementations in urban and rural areas by district and country planning authorities.
Turnover rent A rent which is calculated as a proportion of the annual turnover of the lessee's business. Usually, it does not fall below a base rent. More commonly used in the USA, although in recent years being applied with increasing frequency in the Europe and the mature markets of Asia, especially in the case of the more profitable retail outlets.
Uplifted rent A rent which reflects lease terms which are more beneficial to the tenant than prevailing commercial terms, eg. a higher rent to reflect, say, 14-yearly reviews, rather than the more common five-yearly reviews.
Urban Land Ceiling and Regulation Act (ULCRA) A legislation promulgated in 1976 as a social equity measure with a view to curb profiteering and hoarding in the urban land market as well as prevent urban congestion.
Urban centers i.e. cities were classified into categories such as A, B and C and a ceiling on the maximum permissible usage on land by respective owners was set under provisions of the act.
User 1. The use or enjoyment of a property or of a right over property.
2. A person who uses, enjoys or has a right over a property.
Vaastu shastra A traditional Indian architecture and design system, which specifies the detailed methodology of designing buildings, buying land etc. in order to maximise benefits, from the same for the occupier. This system relies in harmonising any real estate development with the five elements of Indian Mythology namely air, water, earth, fire and space.
Valuation 1. The process of making an estimate of worth of real property or real property or other assets for a particular purpose eg.letting, purchase, sale, audit, rating, compulsory purchase or taxation. That purpose and the relevant circumstances will determine assumptions and facts that are appropriate and hence the process used.
2. A statement, usually in writing, setting, out the facts, assumptions, calculations and resultant value.
3. Colloquially, the value arrived at as a result of the valuation process.
Value The price that might an interested in property or some other asset might reasonably be expected to fetch if disposed of at right
Vertical slice participation A method of multi-participation in a venture, usually a development, whereby each of the participants owns a separate legal interest in the whole of the property concerned by way of the freehold, head lease or a subordinate interest. The documentation normally ensures that rental and other income and /or capital receipts as well as the cost of any revenue or capital liabilities are shared by the participants in predetermined percentages related to their respective contributions, whether financial or otherwise.
Warehouse Premises designed and built for the purpose of bulk storage of raw materials or finished or partly finished goods, pending either onward transit or division into smaller batches and subsequent distribution.
Willing seller-willing buyer An assumption sometimes made for valuation purposes that the owner of the property concerned is willing to dispose of his interest therein and that there is at least one genuine purchaser in the market for that interest, whether or not such is actually the case at the date of valuation.
Written-down value At a given time, the result of making one or more annual of periodic deductions for depreciation against capital cost or worth.
Xystus 1. A covered colonnade, as originally used for exercise by Greek athletes. 2. A garden walk, usually bordered by trees.
Yield up Give up possession, especially by the tenant at the end of a lease .
Zone A defined area of land or part of a building which is allocated for a particular purpose, eg. development plans may allocate areas of land for different uses or values of property may distinguish between areas of floorspace of a building and ascribe different values to them.
Zoning In planning terms, the dividing of an area by a local planning authority into zones for particular uses or activities
Abadi Deh In inhabitant site of village
Banjar Uncultivated land
Banjar Jadid New fellow (land not cultivated for continuous four harvests though it was cultivated earlier.
Banjar Kadim Old fallow (If continued to be uncultivated for next four harvests)
Barani Dependent on rainfall
Bigha A measure of area (It is different in different areas)
Biswa One twentieth of a bigha
Biswansi One twentieth of a biswa
Chahi Irrigated from well
Chahi Nahri Irrigated partly from a well and partly from canal.
Chari A kind of millet (g.v.) grown for fodder
Chaukidar Village Watchman
Chkota Lump grain rent or rent consisting of a foxed amount of grain in the rabi and kharif.
Dholi Death bed gift or a small plot of land to a Brahmin
Girdawar Kanungo or Supervisor of Patwaris
Girdawari Harvest Inspection
Jawar A kind of millet (Sorghum Val gave)
Kalar Barren Land (Sour Clay)
Kanal A measure of area
Kanungo Supervisor of Patwaris
Karam Unit of Length
Kharaba Portion of crop which has failed to come.
Kharif Autumn harvest
Khasra List of fields, field register
Khasra Girdawari Harvest Inspection Register
Khata Holding of tenant
Khatauni Holding slips prepared at re-measurement
Khewat A list of Owner’s holding
Khewat/Khatauni A combined Khewat & Khatauni
Khud Kashat Cultivated by the owner himself
Killabandi Rectangular measurement
Lamaberdar Village Headman
Latha Girdawari Cloth copy of the Patwari’s Map
Marla Measuring of Area
Masri A small pulse
Min Portion / Part
Misal Haqiyat Record-of-Right
Musavi Mapping Sheet
Nahri Irrigated from canal
Naib-Tehsildar The Deputy or Assistant of Tehsildar
Parat Patwar Patwari copy of the new settlement record
Parat Sarkar Government Copy of the new settlement record
Patwari A Village Accountant or Registrar
Rabi Spring Harvest
Sub-Division A sub division of a district
Sub-Divisional Magistrate In-charge of a tehsildar
Taccavi Loan granted by a Government to landowner for agriculture purposes.
Tehsildar In-charge of a tehsil
Wasil Baqi Nawis Revenue Accountant in the Tehsil
Wattar Diagonal Line
• Comparative Market Analysis (CMA) — an estimate of the home's value compared with others.
• Exposure — Marketing the real property to prospective buyers.
• Facilitating a Purchase — guiding a buyer through the process.
• Facilitating a Sale — guiding a seller through the selling process.
• Preparing necessary paperwork
• Real Estate Consulting for a fee, based on the client's needs.
• Leasing for a fee or percentage of the gross lease value.
• Property Portfolio Management
• Exchanging property.
• Auctioning property.
• Preparing contracts and leases
• Property Rental